5 thoughts on “The 40,000-Mile Volcano”

  1. Thank you for posting extremely important but little known information about the deep interior of the Earth.

    Careful measurements of noble gases (He, Ne, Ar, Kr and Xe) from the Earth’s interior have revealed

    1. Primordial He like that seen in Jupiter and carbon-rich inclusions of primitive meteorites, rather than the mixture of

    _ a.) Radiogenic He-4 from the decay of uranium and thorium, and
    _ b.) Cosmogenic He-3 from cosmic-ray bombardment

    that constitute helium at Earth’s surface.

    2. Primordial Ne like that seen in Jupiter and carbon-rich inclusions of primitive meteorites, rather than mass-fractionated neon of higher atomic weight like that in Earth’s atmosphere.

    3. Argon consisting almost entirely of the Ar-40 isotope from spontaneous decay of K-40 in the Earth.

    4. Xenon enriched in Xe-129 and Xe-136 from the spontaneous decay of short-lived iodine-129 and plutonium-244 in the early history of the Earth, four-five billion years ago.

    All of the above observations are consistent with Earth’s heterogeneous accretion in laters, as was first suggested by Turekian and Clarke in 1969, beginning with the

    I. Accretion of iron meteorites to form Earth’s iron core, that became the

    II. Accretion site for stone meteorites to form Earth’s silicate mantle

    rather than fairy-tale melting and geochemical differentiation of planet Earth into a iron core and a silicate mantle.

    Evidence for the above scenario for Earth’s formation was reported in Science in 1971 and summarized in the Geochemical Journal of Japan in 1981. I will try to find the references.

  2. Geothermal heat from submarine vulcanism not only warms the seas (not accounted for in climate models) but because it is localized to the spreading centers, it drives convection that also influences ocean currents (PDO, AMO, El Nino, etc.). There is also the issue of the injection of massive amounts of volcanic gases directly into the seas. The volcanic methane is neutral and the volcanic CO2 is only weakly acidic, but the volcanic sulfur oxides are very strongly acidic – enough so that they are the prime determinants of marine pH readings. Fortunately surface runoff from the land tends to carry more alkaline constituents (ash from fires, leachate from soils), more than enough to neutralize this volcanic acidity.

  3. Correction to my middle paragraph:

    All of the above observations are consistent with Earth’s heterogeneous accretion in LAYERS, as was first suggested by Turekian and Clarke in 1969.

    My “smart phone” changes some words that do not need to be changed. Further confirmation that AI (artificial intelligence) is anything but intelligent.

  4. I accepted Kuroda’s 1960 research assignment on “The Origin of the Solar System and Its Elsments” because decay products of 16 Myr iodine-129 and 82 Myr plutonium had been identified that year in the solar system.

    Here two of many subsequents measurements that confirmed fresh, highly radioactive and heterogeneous supernova debris formed the Earth and the entire solar system:

    1. Mervet S. Boulos and Oliver K. Manuel, “The xenon record of extinct radioactivities in the Earth,” Science 174, 1334-1336 (1971)

    http://www.omatumr.com/archive/XenonRecord.pdf or
    http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/abstract/174/4016/1334

    2. O. K. Manuel and D. D. Sabu, “The noble gas record of the terrestrial planets”, Geochemical Journal 15, 247-267 (1981): http://www.omatumr.com/archive/NobleGas.pdf

  5. Measurements reported in this 1979 paper in Nature show that elements and even isotopes of a given element were not mixed in the heterogeneous supernova debris that formed the solar system:

    R. V. Ballad, L. L. Oliver, R. G. Downing and O. K. Manuel, “Isotopes of tellurium, xenon and krypton in the Allende meteorite retain record of nucleosynthesis”, Nature 277, 615-620 (1979); doi:10.1038/277615a0 http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v277/n5698/abs/277615a0.html

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