British birds, animals and insects are moving northwards in response to climate change, new research reveals.
Birds, butterflies, other insects and spiders have colonised nature reserves and areas protected for wildlife, as they move north in response to climate change and other environmental change.
The study of more than 250 species was led by researchers in the Department of Biology at York, and its conclusions were based on the analysis of millions of records of wildlife species sent in predominantly by members of the public.
Many species need to spread towards the poles where conditions remain cool enough for them to survive climate warming.
However doing this is complicated because many landscapes across the world are dominated by human agriculture and development, which form barriers to the movement of species.
The mainstay of traditional conservation has been to establish protected areas and nature reserves to provide refuges against the loss of habitats and other threats in the surrounding countryside.